Useful products from crude oil crude oil is a fossil fuel, formed from the decay of sea creatures over millions of years. Crude oil, or petroleum is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Gcse science aqa, ocr, edexcel gcse chemistry crude oil and cracking questions total marks. Petrol and other fuels are produced from it using fractional distillation and cracking. It is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, containing mainly alkanes. Thermal cracking definition and meaning collins english. This is a chemical reaction in which heat breaks down long chain molecules into smaller ones. In this question you will be assessed on using good english, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Cracking fuels edexcel gcse chemistry single science. It is formed from the remains of plants and animals which died millions of years ago.
In this video, we look at how cracking is used to convert longchain hydrocarbons into shorterchain hydrocarbons. Jun 14, 2017 international gcse p48443a p48443a0120. In industry they use silica silicon oxide or alumina aluminium oxide. Nov 14, 2017 gcse science chemistry 91 crude oil and hydrocarbons. A petrol, diesel oil, kerosene, heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum. Cracking is used to convert long alkanes into shorter, more useful hydrocarbons. The first stages in the processing of crude oil are described below.
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons formed from the remains of simple marine organisms over millions of years. Written by teachers for the edexcel igcse chemistry course. In order to convert it into useful products it must pass through a. Cracking why is crude oil important as a source of new materials. Two methods of cracking how to write a balanced equation for cracking what an alkene is, and how they differ from an alkane the test for alkenes the. Gcse chemistry products from oil high demand questions questionsheet 4 crude oil is a mixture of many compounds. Please comment if you have any questions, and subscribe if you. These hydrocarbons are separated by their boiling points, each of these sections. The process is known as catalytic cracking because it only happens in the presence of a catalyst substance which speeds up the reaction without being used up itself.
Give an example of a method by which cracking can be carried out. Gcse science crude oil, hydrocarbons and cracking lesson. The best way to remember the information in this chapter is to get a pen and paper and write down your answers. Thousands of english, maths, science gcse revision activities created by teachers accelerate your childs learning with our learn, practise and test approach. Gcse chemistry revision questions fossil fuels crude. Crude oil often contains too many large hydrocarbon molecules and not enough small hydrocarbon molecules to meet demand. Crude oil is a dark smelly liquid which is a mixture of many different. Name a product from cracking diesel 6 name a property of a small chain hydrocarbon 4, 7 other than fuel what else can crude oil be used to make.
The answer to the question of crude oils multiple uses is fractional distillation and cracking. What is crude oil and how is it turned into so many different things. Making crude oil usefulfractional distillation and cracking. Learn about the process of oil distillation in order to create fuels and plastics with bbc bitesize gcse chemistry wjec.
Cracking means splitting up longchain hydrocarbons by passing vapour over a hot catalyst. You need to understand certain chemical reactions used in a variety of industrial processes for gcse chemistry. Organic chemistry now forms a substantial part of the gcse specifications. There are two good economic reasons for cracking oil fractions i there isn. Describe and explain how petrol is separated from the mixture of hydrocarbons in crude oil. The fractional distillation of crude oil fractional distillation separates crude oil into more useful hydrocarbons. One of these is thermal cracking which is used on crude oil. Cracking crude oil eduqas gcse chemistry single science.
For example, crude oil can be processed cracked to. For us students petrol is gas and paraffin is kerosene. Gcse chemistry crude oil by revise a level and gcse. Study c1 fractional distillation of crude oil, cracking flashcards from. This is the fifth of six quizzes on that topic and it looks specifically at two methods of processing crude oil cracking and fractioning. Crude oil cracking reforming and isomerisation duration. Crude oil petrol and other fuels are produced from it using fractional distillation and cracking. You need to know about alkanes, alkenes, crude oil and the process of cracking. Crude oil and other fuels is one area studied in gcse science. Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts. Polymers, monomers, crude oil, cracking and hydrocarbons. The direct cracking of crude oil is an interesting option for producing cheaply large amounts of petrochemicals. The longchain hydrocarbon is heated to vapourise it. Use the diagram to help you to explain how crude oil is separated into fractions.
Cracking of hydrocarbons is covered before pupils are asked questions on the reasons for the process and how it is carried out. Alkenes along with alkanes can be produced from cracking. Over time, the mud turned into rock and high temperatures and pressures turned the animalplant remains into crude oil, which is found trapped in sedimentary rocks. As part of their work on crude oil, gcse chemistry students will look at thermal cracking. Use the diagram and your knowledge to answer this question. This website and its content is subject to our terms and conditions. Learn about crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes with bitesize gcse chemistry aqa. Home gcse study tools chemistry cracking crude oil. The best way to remember the information in this chapter is to get a pen and paper and write down your answers before clicking on the answer link which will take you to the correct page you may have to read through some of the page before you find the answer. Revise what you learned in year 10 and year 11 in this exciting quiz. You should use the words evaporated and condensed in your answer. Fractional distillation of crude oil oil and cracking. Crude oil is formed from the remains of dead sea plants and creatures that became buried in the sediments of the sea floor millions of. Crude oil cannot be used directly but it is the source of many useful products.
Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. Leads onto a lesson on cracking and allows afl for students to be able to name alkanes by carbon number. This may be carried out with catalyst and equipment similar to that of catalytic cracking, but at a temperature range between that of standard catalytic cracking and steam cracking. Cracking, in petroleum refining, the process by which heavy hydrocarbon molecules are broken up into lighter molecules by means of heat and usually pressure and sometimes catalysts. Cracking oil and cracking gcse chemistry single science. In addition to this you will need to know about functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters and how to draw their structures. Chemistry processing crude oil aqa crude oil and other fuels is one area studied in gcse science. Crude oil is used to produce many useful materials. Crude oil can be separated into different fractions using fractional distillation. This page contains the aqa gcse chemistry c9 hydrocarbons questions and kerboodle answers for revision and understanding hydrocarbons.
Without any cracking units, a refinery would produce those percentages. The crude oil that comes out of the ground is useless on its own. Tes global ltd is registered in england company no 02017289 with its registered office. Crude oil was formed when millions 50500 of years ago, tiny plants and animals mainly plankton died and fell to the bottom of the sea, and were buried by mud. Some can be used for bitumen used to make tar for roads, but there is more residue than we really want. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Predicting where and when all these events have occurred in the correct sequence is not easy. Two methods of cracking how to write a balanced equation for cracking what an alkene is, and how they differ. A fully resourced lesson with assessment on the cracking of crude oil. The fractional distillation of crude oil produces alkanes. Gcse crude oil revise processing by cracking and fracking. Cracking is the name for a thermal decomposition processes. Gcse lesson on the uses of crude oil and naming alkanes. Gcse chemistry what is the cracking of hydrocarbons.
Starts with recall of naming simple alkanes and then goes onto develop understanding of alkenes and how they are formed from the cracking process. Oil and cracking the majority of our fuels and plastics are derived from oil. Used in the oil and gas industry to refer to a variety of methods whereby a larger product is broken down into smaller byproducts. Home gcse study tools chemistry cgp cracking crude oil.
Making crude oil useful fractional distillation and cracking. The accumulation of oil and gas deposits is a series of chance events which include the presence of a source rock, the burial of the source rock, the formation of a reservoir and a trap. Fluid catalytic cracking is a commonly used process, and a modern oil refinery will typically include a cat cracker, particularly at refineries in the us, due to the high demand for gasoline. Gcse chemistry revision worksheets chemistry past papers.
One family of hydrocarbons produced from crude oil is called the alkanes. Cracking is the most important process for the commercial production of gasoline and diesel fuel. Gcse chemistry products from oil high demand questions questionsheet 1 a crude oil is the raw material of the petrochemical industry. Crude oil can be converted into many useful things. Hydrocarbons from oil a2levellevelrevision, chemistry. However, once the crude oil is refined, it is used to produce gasoline, diesel fuel, paraffin wax, and even plastics. They cover formation of crude oil, hydrocarbons, alkanes, fractional distillation, alkenes and polymerisation. Gcse chemistry revision organic chemistry crude oil. The hydrocarbons that have low boiling points remain as gases and rise up the column. In this episode, he will look at how crude oil forms, what its made from, and how its used.
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons hydrocarbons are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms only. The vapour is then passed over a powdered catalyst at a temp of about 400700c. Cracking is an example of a thermal decomposition reaction. Most of the ethene used to make polymers is produced by the cracking of. Cracking allows large hydrocarbon molecules to be broken down into smaller, more useful hydrocarbon molecules. These resources are specifically designed for senfoundation students studying gcse chemistry ocraqa. Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only, we call these type of compounds hydrocarbons. If the answer you have written is not right, change it. Part of the hydrocarbon crude oil topic at science chemistry gcse. Targeted towards aqa c1 topic 5 but suitable for edexcel and other exam boards too. Jono goes organic and talks about crude oil for your gcse exam. The vapour is then fed into the bottom of the fractionating column.
There is a greater demand for smaller hydrocarbons than larger ones. Jan 24, 2018 a typical light sweet crude will produce about 60% light products lpg, gasoline, jet fuel, diesel and 40% heavy fuel oil. This page also contains the link to the notes and video for the revision of this topic c9. Global importance of crude oil oil and cracking gcse. The american chemist, william burton, is usually credited with being the inventor of the thermal cracking process. Cracking and alkenes crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes aqa. The industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions, some of these fractions can be used for fuels and plastics. Gcse crude oil revise the thermal cracking reaction.
This lesson focuses the supply and demand of different fractions of crude oil and how cracking can be used to break larger hydrocarbons into smaller ones. Our core activities are designed to develop the skills theyre learning in school to build your childs confidence. The demand is how much of a fraction customers want to buy. Crude oil was formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals and therefore is called a fossil fuel. Petrol and other fuels are produced from it using fractional distillation. The fractional distillation of crude oil is a key industrial process, as it produces compounds such as methane, bitumen and gasoline. Cracking and alkenes crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes. A secondary school revision resource for ocr gcse science about carbon chemistry and making crude oil useful cracking alkanes thermal and catalytic a brief description of the difference between thermal and catalytic cracking of alkanes. Qwc 6 mark answer practice secondary science 4 all.
Thousands of gcse english, maths and science activities. The chemistry of cracking results in the formation of smaller, more useful alkanes such as petrol, and even more useful alkenes such as ethene. May 16, 2017 a fully resourced lesson with assessment on the cracking of crude oil. Cracking practical gcse chemistry crude oil youtube. Give three examples of fuels which are produced from crude oil that are used in our society. A hydrocarbons are broken down 1 mark to produce smaller more useful molecules 1 mark. The starter is a data analysis activity that links in to the leaning objective. Thermal cracking is an extraction process in which hydrocarbons such as crude oil are. Learn about and revise crude oil and its fractions with this bbc bitesize gcse combined science ocr 21c study guide. Gcse chemistry crude oil and alkanes aqa 91 duration. Cracking is a thermal decomposition process by which large alkane hydrocarbon molecules are broken down by passing them over a heated catalyst at high pressure. Crude oil is broken down in oil refineries into fractions, and these can then be used for many different purposes. Gcse science chemistry 91 crude oil and hydrocarbons. Crude oil is described as a fossil fuel but it is much more important than that as many plastics have crude oil as a raw material.1283 1114 641 433 420 1035 1485 317 1469 1162 154 241 1387 1262 259 901 1107 34 1171 1143 1419 337 569 236 1073 149 738 587 990 1342 1144 244 748 1403 518 792 1321 417 1056 114 337 250 1361 294 1034 1076